What is the difference between signed and unsigned variables?
Unsigned variables, such as unsigned integers, will only allow you to represent numbers in the positive. Unsigned and signed variables of the same type (such as int and byte) both have the same range (range of 65,536 and 256 numbers, respectively), but unsigned can represent a larger magnitude number than the corresponding signed variable.
The most common extension methods are the LINQ standard query operators that add query functionality to the existing System Collections IEnumerable and System Collections Generic IEnumerable <T> types.
They are languages that are compiled into other languages, in order to improve the experience of working with the underlying language, are referred to as preprocessors. There are two popular preprocessors for CSS: Less and Sass. These preprocessors add features to CSS,
What does the Dependency Inversion Principle state?
Dependency Inversion Principle states the following:
#1) High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Both should depend on abstractions.
#2) Abstractions should not depend upon details. Details should depend upon abstractions.
Serverless computing is the abstraction of servers, infrastructure, and operating systems. When you build serverless apps you don’t need to provision and manage any servers, so you can take your mind off infrastructure concerns.
Keyword: systems Abstraction servers infrastructure operating
A source-to-source compiler, transcompiler or transpiler is a type of compiler that takes the source code of a program written in one programming language as its input and produces the equivalent source code in another programming language.
Keyword: Type Source code compiler Language programming program one written input produces equivalent another
What is the Document Object Model or what is commonly referred to as the DOM?
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent application programming interface that treats an HTML, XHTML, or XML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document. The objects can be manipulated programmatically and any visible changes occurring as a result may then be reflected in the display of the document.
Keyword: interface Cross application XML Language platform programming independent structure HTML treats XHTML document tree
What are the steps to use the CLI to create a new project?
To create a new project using the CLI, you need three basic commands mkdir, cd , dotnet new. The mkdir command is used to create a new folder. The cd command is used to change to that directory. Dotnet new is used to actually scaffold a new project.
Metapackages are a NuGet package convention for describing a set of packages that are meaningful together. They represent this set of packages by making them dependencies. They can optionally establish a framework for this set of packages by specifying a framework.
Keyword: Package set convention NuGet describing packages meaningful together
Hot Module Replacement (HMR) exchanges, adds, or removes modules while an application is running, without a full reload. This can significantly speed up development in a few ways:
Retain application state which is lost during a full reload.
Save valuable development time by only updating what's changed.
Tweak styling faster -- almost comparable to changing styles in the browser's debugger.
Keyword: application Modules while exchanges adds removes running without full reload
Answer the following question with a True or False statement: If a web server is not explicitly defined for the default setting for WebHostBuilder, IIS (Internet Information Server) will be used by default.
False. If a web server is not explicitly declared in WebHostBuilder, then Kestrel will be used by default.
Iteration statements cause embedded statements to be executed a number of times, subject to the loop-termination criteria. These statements are executed in order, except when a jump statement is encountered.
Keyword: number cause embedded statements executed times subject loop termination criteria
Threading enables your C# program to perform concurrent processing so that you can do more than one operation at a time. For example, you can use threading to monitor input from the user, perform background tasks, and handle simultaneous streams of input.
Keyword: processing program perform enables concurrent
Cost Performance Index is a measure of the efficiency of expenses spent on a project. The formula that a business normally uses to assess the cost performance index (CPI) is the ratio of earned value (EV) over actual costs (AC); therefore, CPI is equal to EV divided by AC.
Asynchronous programming is a means of parallel programming in which a unit of work runs separately from the main application thread and notifies the calling thread of its completion, failure or progress.
Keyword: application runs unit programming parallel work separately main thread
Keywords are predefined, reserved identifiers that have special meanings to the compiler. They cannot be used as identifiers in your program unless they include @ as a prefix. For example, @if is a valid identifier, but if is not because if is a keyword.
Keyword: compiler special predefined reserved identifiers meanings
Dotnet is a generic driver for the Command Line Interface (CLI) toolchain. Each specific feature is implemented as a command. To use the feature, the command is specified after dotnet, such as dotnet build. All of the arguments following the command are its own arguments.
Keyword: interface Line Dotnet generic driver Command toolchain
Bower is a package manager for the web that is used to manage frameworks, libraries, assets and utilities. Bower works by fetching and installing packages from all over, taking care of hunting, finding, downloading, and saving the stuff you’re looking for. Bower keeps track of these packages in a manifest file, bower.json.
Keyword: Package Manager used manage frameworks libraries assets utilities
A computer network consists of two or more computers connected by some kind of transmission medium, such as a cable or air waves. The primary motivation for networking was the need for people to share resources, such as printers and hard drives, and information such as word processing files and to communicate by using applications such as e-mail.
Keyword: connected two consists more computers transmission medium cable air waves
What are the four layers in the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) Model?
Layer #4) Application (OSI’s application, presentation and session layers combined)
Layer #3) Transport (OSI’s transport layer)
Layer #2) Internet (OSI network layer)
Layer #1) Link (OSI data link layer)
Keyword: Internet application Layer Link Transport
What are the Seven Layers in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model?
Layer #7) Application: User interface
Layer #6) Presentation: Converts data to application-readable format (encryption/decryption, deserialization)
Layer #5) Session: Manages connections between applications
Layer #4) Transport: Delivers data from correct application
Layer #3) Network: Routing, forwarding, addressing
Layer #2) Data Link: Converts data into bits, handles transmission scheduling
Layer #1) Physical: Sends out the bit streams as signals
Keyword: data Network application Physical Layer Link Transport Session Presentation
is a form of parallelization across multiple processors in parallel computing environments. It focuses on distributing the data across different nodes, which operate on the data in parallel. It can be applied on regular data structures like arrays and matrices by working on each element in parallel. It contrasts to task parallelism as another form of parallelism.
Keyword: computing multiple form parallelization across processors parallel environments
The out keyword is used for passing a variable for output purpose. It has same concept as ref keyword, but passing a ref parameter needs variable to be initialized while out parameter is passed without initialized. It is useful when we want to return more than one value from the method.
A unit of work pattern is a pattern that has two important features. It maintains in-memory updates and also sends in-memory updates as one transaction to the database. A nice benefit of implementing a unit of work pattern is that if something goes wrong, you can easily roll back your transactions.
Keyword: in Transaction two memory important features maintains updates sends one
Encapsulation is the process of grouping items into an object (means that functions or tasks are captured (encapsulated) into each object, which keeps them safe from changes because access is protected.
A class is a custom object created by the developer that can be instantiated across the application or, if self-contained in a DLL file, across multiple applications (Reusable code). Classes have properties, events and methods that can be used across the application.
Generics introduced in C# 2.0, allow you to define type-safe data structures, without committing to actual data types. This results in a significant performance boost and higher quality code, because you get to reuse data processing algorithms without duplicating type-specific code.
a data structure is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which specify the operations that can be performed on a data structure and the computational complexity of those operations.
Keyword: data used particular way organizing computer efficiently
In computer science, a heap is a specialized tree-based data structure that satisfies the heap property: If A is a parent node of B then the key of node A is ordered with respect to the key of node B with the same ordering applying across the heap. A heap can be classified further as either a "max heap" or a "min heap".
Keyword: data based structure heap tree specialized satisfies property
Bubble sort, sometimes referred to as sinking sort, is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list to be sorted, compares each pair of adjacent items and swaps them if they are in the wrong order. The pass through the list is repeated until no swaps are needed, which indicates that the list is sorted.
Keyword: sorting algorithm items each simple compares pair adjacent swaps wrong order
What is the difference between int.Parse and int.TryParse methods?
Parse method throws an exception if the string you are trying to parse is not a valid number where as TryParse returns true or false and does not throw an exception if parsing fails. Hence TryParse is more efficient than Parse.
A stored procedure is a precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements stored under one name and processed as a unit.
• Modular programming
• Faster execution
• Reduced network traffic
• Enhanced application security
Interfaces are very powerful. If properly used, interfaces provide all the advantages as listed below:
1. Interfaces allow us to implement polymorphic behavior. Of course, abstract classes can also be used to implement polymorphic behavior.
2. Interfaces allow us to develop very loosely coupled systems.
3. Interfaces enable mocking for better unit testing.
4. Interfaces enables us to implement multiple class inheritance in C#.
5. Interfaces are great for implementing Inversion of Control or Dependency Injection.
6. Interfaces enable parallel application development.
Keyword: of class unit behavior Injection polymorphic loosely coupled systems testing multiple inheritance Inversion Control Dependency
An interface has no implementation; it is only has the signature or in other words, just the definition of the methods without the body. When we create an interface, we are basically creating a set of methods without any implementation that must be overridden by the implemented classes. The advantage is that it provides a way for a class to be a part of two classes: one from inheritance hierarchy and one from the interface.
Keyword: has no implementation only signature basically creating must overridden
An abstract class is a special kind of class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is only to be subclass (inherited from). In other words, it only allows other classes to inherit from it but cannot be instantiated. The advantage is that it enforces certain hierarchies for all the subclasses. In simple words, it is a kind of contract that forces all the subclasses to carry on the same hierarchies or standards.
What are Properties in C#. Explain with an example?
Properties in C# are class members that provide a flexible mechanism to read, write, or compute the values of private fields. Properties can be used as if they are public data members, but they are actually special methods called accessors. This enables data to be accessed easily and still helps promote the safety and flexibility of methods.
Keyword: fields members class Write values compute provide flexible mechanism read private
Constants in C# are immutable values which are known at compile time and do not change for the life of the program. Constants are declared using the const keyword. Constants must be initialized as they are declared. You cannot assign a value to a constant after it is declared.
Keyword: values time Constants immutable known compile do not change life program
ASP.NET MVC uses ASP.NET routing, to map incoming browser requests to controller action methods. ASP.NET Routing makes use of route table. Route table is created when your web application first starts. The route table is present in the Global.asax file. In .NET Core the route table is built in the startup.cs file class.
Windows Azure is a cloud platform that provides on-demand services to build, deploy, host, and manage web applications through Microsoft-managed data centers. When you use Windows Azure services, you need to pay only for services. Also, you need not worry about building a scalable infrastructure because Windows Azure automatically adds resources as your website grows.
Keyword: applications data web cloud platform provides on-demand services build deploy host manage Microsoft centers
A type converter can be used to convert values between data types, and to assist property configuration at design time by providing text-to-value conversion or a drop-down list of values to select from.
Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) is a declarative XML-based language developed by Microsoft that is used for initializing structured values and objects. The acronym originally stood for Extensible Avalon Markup Language, Avalon being the code-name for Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF).
Keyword: application XML Extensible Markup Language declarative initializing structured values objects
#1) Write a failing test.
#2) Make the test pass.
#3) Refactor and cleanup.
Before writing code, you should always start with TDD first. A good pattern to follow is Arrange, Act and Assert or known as (AAA).
Keyword: Write failing test Make pass Refactor cleanup
A web framework or web application framework is a software framework that is designed to support the development of web applications including web services, web resources, and web APIs. Web frameworks provide a standard way to build and deploy web applications.
Keyword: applications web software framework designed support development
They are classes that are used to create data or functions don’t need to be instantiated. The only contain static members and they’re inherently sealed. The static modifier can be used with classes, fields, methods, properties, operators, events, and constructors, but it cannot be used with indexers, destructors, or types other than classes.
A delegate is a type safe function pointer. Using delegates, you can pass methods as parameters. To pass a method as a parameter, to a delegate, the signature of the method must match the signature of the delegate. Therefore, delegates are called type safe function pointers.
Digital transformation refers to the changes associated with the application of digital technology in all aspects of human society. Digital transformation may be thought as the third stage of embracing digital technologies: digital competence → digital usage → digital transformation, with usage and transformative ability informing digital literacy.
Keyword: changes associated application digital technology aspects human
Platform as a service (PaaS) is a cloud computing model in which a third-party provider delivers hardware and software tools -- usually those needed for application development -- to users over the internet. A PaaS provider hosts the hardware and software on its own infrastructure. As a result, PaaS frees users from having to install in-house hardware and software to develop or run a new application.
Keyword: model cloud computing software delivers hardware tools
Software as a service (SaaS) is a software distribution model in which a third-party provider hosts applications and makes them available to customers over the Internet. SaaS is one of three main categories of cloud computing, alongside infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS).
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a form of cloud computing that provides virtualized computing resources over the Internet. IaaS is one of three main categories of cloud computing services, alongside Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS).
The readonly keyword is a modifier that you can use on fields. When a field declaration includes a readonly modifier, assignments to the fields introduced by the declaration can only occur as part of the declaration or in a constructor in the same class.
Keyword: modifier use fields assignments declaration constructor class occur same
What are the four installation options for Bootstrap?
The four installation options are
#2 Use Bootstrap Content Delivery Network
#3) Download source files (which includes everything)
#4) Use a Package Manager
Nullable type is new concept introduced in C# 2.0 which allows users to assign a null value to a primitive data type of the C# language. Important to note, that Nullable types are instances of the System.Nullable<T> struct.
What do controllers represent in an MVC application?
An MVC controller is a class that handles user interaction, creates and modifies model classes, and selects appropriate views. For example, when a user requests full details about a particular product, the controller creates a new instance of the Product model class and passes it to the Details view, which displays it to the user.
Keyword: handles user interaction creates modifies model classes selects views appropriate
Built-in types in C# are
#1) Boolean type – Only true or false
#2) Integral Types - sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char
#3) Floating Types – float and double
#4) Decimal Types
#5) String Type
Keyword: Type Boolean Integral Floating Decimal String